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Software Testing Experienced Interview Questions and Answers - Part 2



Software Testing Experienced Interview
Questions and Answers - Part 2



51) What is maintenance testing?

Triggered by modifications, migration or retirement of existing software


52) What is called the process starting with the terminal modules?

Bottom-up integration

53) What is beta testing?

Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations.


54) What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?

An input or outputs range of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.


55) What is a failure?

Failure is a departure from specified behavior.



56) What is Fault Masking?

Error condition hiding another error condition.


57) What is Coverage measurement?

It is a partial measure of test thoroughness.


58) What is Boundary value testing?

Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes.


59) What is Alpha testing?

Pre-release testing by end user representatives at the developer’s site.


60) What does COTS represent?

Commercial off The Shelf


61) What determines the level of risk?

The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event


62) What can static analysis NOT find?

For example memory leaks


63) What can be thought of as being based on the project plan, but with greater amounts of detail?

Phase Test Plan


64) What are the phases of a formal review?

In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps: Planning, Kick-off, Preparation, Review meeting, Rework, Follow-up


65) What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model?

There are currently seven different Agile methodologies that I am aware of: Extreme Programming (XP), Scrum, Lean Software Development, Feature-Driven Development, Agile Unified Process, Crystal, Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM)


66) What are the Structure-based (white-box) testing techniques?

Structure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called ‘white-box’ or ‘glass-box’ techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.


67) What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

In experience-based techniques, people’s knowledge, skills and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.


68) What are Test comparators?

Is it really a test if you put some inputs into some software, but never look to see whether the software produces the correct result? The essence of testing is to check whether the software produces the correct result, and to do that, we must compare what the software produces to what it should produce. A test comparator helps to automate aspects of that comparison.


69) We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing:

User Acceptance Test Cases


70) To test a function, what has to write a programmer, which calls the function to be tested and passes it test data

Driver


71) This life cycle model is basically driven by schedule and budget risks” This statement is best suited for

V-Model


72) The purpose of which is allow specific tests to be carried out on a system or network that resembles as closely as possible the environment where the item under test will be used upon release?

Test Environment


73) The purpose of requirement phase is

To freeze requirements, to understand user needs, to define the scope of testing


74) The later in the development life cycle a fault is discovered, the more expensive it is to fix. why?

The fault has been built into more documentation, code, tests, etc


75) Testing where in we subject the target of the test, to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviors and ability of the target and of the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads :

Load Testing


76) Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components is:

Integration Level Testing


77) Repeated Testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software component:

Regression Testing


78) Rapid Application Development?

Rapid Application Development (RAD) is formally a parallel development of functions and subsequent integration. Components/functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects, the developments are time-boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can very quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. Rapid change and development of the product is possible using this methodology. However the product specification will need to be developed for the product at some point, and the project will need to be placed under more formal controls prior to going into production.


79) In which order should tests be run?

The most important tests first


80) In practice, which Life Cycle model may have more, fewer or different levels of development and testing, depending on the project and the software product. For example, there may be component integration testing after component testing, and system integration testing after system testing.

V-Model


81) In a REACTIVE approach to testing when would you expect the bulk of the test design work to be begun?

After the software or system has been produced.


82) How would you estimate the amount of re-testing likely to be required?

Metrics from previous similar projects and discussions with the development team


83) How much testing is enough?

The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements.


84) When should testing be stopped?

It depends on the risks for the system being tested.


85) How much testing is enough?

The answer depends on the risks for your industry, contract and special requirements


86) Why we split testing into distinct stages?

Each test stage has a different purpose.


87) Faults found should be originally documented by who?

By testers.


88) During which test activity could faults be found most cost effectively?

During test planning


89) During the testing of a module tester ‘X’ finds a bug and assigned it to developer. But developer rejects the same, saying that it’s not a bug. What ‘X’ should do?

Send to the detailed information of the bug encountered and check the reproducibility


90) Consider the following techniques. Which are static and which are dynamic techniques?

i. Equivalence Partitioning,
ii. Exploratory Testing,
iii. Use Case Testing,
iv. Data Flow Analysis,
v. Decision Testing,
vi. Inspections


91) Data Flow Analysis and Inspections are static; Equivalence Partitioning, Use Case Testing,

Exploratory Testing and Decision Testing are dynamic.


92) As part of which test process do you determine the exit criteria?

Test planning.


93) An input field takes the year of birth between 2100 and 3005 What are the boundary values for testing this field?

2099,2100,3005,3006


94) Which of the following are characteristic of regression testing?

i) Regression testing is run ONLY once
ii) Regression testing is used after fixes have been made
iii) Regression testing is often automated
iv) Regression tests need not be maintained
Ans : Regression testing is used after fixes have been made


95) A type of integration testing in which software elements, hardware elements, or both are combined all at once into a component or an overall system, rather than in stages.

Big-Bang Testing


96) A test manager wants to use the resources available for the automated testing of a web application.

The best choice is Tester, test automater, web specialist, DBA


97) A number of critical bugs are fixed in software. All the bugs are in one module, related to reports. The test manager decides to do regression testing only on the reports module.

Regression testing should be done on other modules as well because fixing one module may affect other modules.


98) A Type of functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders.

Security Testing


99) Why we use decision tables?

The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g. inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a ’cause-effect’ table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called ’cause-effect graphing’ which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table.


100) When should configuration management procedures be implemented?

A. During test planning.
B. During test analysis.
C. During test execution.
D. When evaluating exit criteria
Ans : During test planning.


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