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Software Testing Experienced Interview Questions and Answers - Part 1



Software Testing Experienced Interview
Questions and Answers - Part 1



1) What is a V-Model?

A software development model that illustrates how testing activities integrate with software development phases


2) What is functional system testing?

Testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole.


3) What is failure?

Deviation from expected result to actual result


4) What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach in which testers are involved in minimum planning and maximum test execution. The planning involves the creation of a test charter, a short declaration of the scope of a short (1 to 2 hour) time-boxed test effort, the objectives and possible approaches to be used. The test design and test execution activities are performed in parallel typically without formally documenting the test conditions, test cases or test scripts. This does not mean that other, more formal testing techniques will not be used. For example, the tester may decide to use boundary value analysis but will think through and test the most important boundary values without necessarily writing them down. Some notes will be written during the exploratory-testing session, so that a report can be produced afterwards.


5) What is component testing?

Component testing, also known as unit, module and program testing, searches for defects in, and verifies the functioning of software (e.g. modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.) that are separately testable. Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depending on the context of the development life cycle and the system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components in a simple manner. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.



6) Why we use decision tables?

The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g. inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a ’cause-effect’ table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called ’cause-effect graphing’ which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table


7) Why is incremental integration preferred over “big bang” integration?

Because incremental integration has better early defects screening and isolation ability


8) Why does the boundary value analysis provide good test cases?

Because errors are frequently made during programming of the different cases near the ‘edges’ of the range of values.


9) Why can be tester dependent on configuration management?

Because configuration management assures that we know the exact version of the test ware and the test object.


10) Why static testing and dynamic testing are described as complementary?

Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find.


11) Who is responsible for document all the issues, problems and open point that were identified during the review meeting:

Scribe

12) Which technique can be used to achieve input and output coverage?

It can be applied to human input, input via interfaces to a system, or interface parameters in integration testing. Equivalence partitioning


13) Which review is normally used to evaluate a product to determine its suitability for intended use and to identify discrepancies?

Technical Review.

14) Which of the following tools would be involved in the automation of regression test?
a. Data tester
b. Boundary tester
c. Capture/Playback
d. Output comparator.

Ans d. Output comparator


15) Which of the following is the review participant who has created the item to be reviewed?

Author


16) Which of the following is the main purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?

To specify which modules to combine when, and how many at once.


17) Which of the following is likely to benefit most from the use of test tools providing test capture and replay facilities?

a) Regression testing
b) Integration testing
c) System testing
d) User acceptance testing

Regression testing


18) Which of the following defines the expected results of a test?

Test case specification or test design specification. Test case specification.


19) Which of the following are valid objectives for incident reports?

i. Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation and correction as necessary.
ii. Provide ideas for test process improvement.
iii. Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence.
iv. Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test.


20) Which is the current formal world-wide recognized documentation standard?

There isn’t one.


21) Which is the MOST important advantage of independence in testing?

An independent tester may be more effective at finding defects missed by the person who wrote the software.


22) Which is a benefit of test independence?

It avoids author bias in defining effective tests.


23) Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?

A Test analysis and design.


24) When testing a grade calculation system, a tester determines that all scores from 90 to 100 will yield a grade of A, but scores below 90 will not. This analysis is known as:

Equivalence partitioning


25) When should testing be stopped?

It depends on the risks for the system being tested


26) When should configuration management procedures be implemented?

During test planning.


27) When should be performed Regression testing?

After the software has changed or when the environment has changed


28) When is used Decision table testing?

Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.


29) When do we prepare RTM (Requirement traceability matrix), is it before test case designing or after test case designing?

It would be before. Requirements should already be traceable from Review activities since you should have traceability in the Test Plan already. This question also would depend on the organization. If the organization do test after development started then requirements must be already traceable to their source. To make life simpler use a tool to manage requirements.


30) What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics?

Inspection


31) Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing?

Yes, because both help detect faults and improve quality


32) What studies data flow analysis?

The use of data on paths through the code.


33) What makes an inspection different from other review types?

It is led by a trained leader, uses formal entry and exit criteria and checklists.


34) What is typically the MOST important reason to use risk to drive testing efforts?

Because testing everything is not feasible.


35) What is the role of moderator in review process?

The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she deter-mines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.


36) What is the purpose of test design technique?

Identifying test conditions and Identifying test cases


37) What is the purpose of exit criteria?

To define when a test level is complete.


38) What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?

To determine when to stop testing


39) What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?

To determine when to stop testing


40) What is the one Key reason why developers have difficulty testing their own work?

Lack of Objectivity


41) What is the main purpose of Informal review:

Inexpensive way to get some benefit


42) What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?

Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects


43) What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?

Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side-effects.


44) What is the difference between Testing Techniques and Testing Tools?

Testing technique: – Is a process for ensuring that some aspects of the application system or unit functions properly there may be few techniques but many tools. Testing Tools: – Is a vehicle for performing a test process. The tool is a resource to the tester, but itself is insufficient to conduct testing.


45) What are the benefits of Independent Testing?

Independent testers see other and different defects and are unbiased.


46) What is the MAIN objective when reviewing a software deliverable?

To identify defects in any software work product.


47) What is the MAIN benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?

It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code.


48) What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?

Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.


49) What is test coverage?

Test coverage measures in some specific way the amount of testing performed by a set of tests (derived in some other way, e.g. using specification-based techniques). Wherever we can count things and can tell whether or not each of those things has been tested by some test, then we can measure coverage.


50) What is risk-based testing?

Risk-based testing is the term used for an approach to creating a test strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

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